Tables

To some extent, the height and width of the table will govern where and how it is presented. A small table, of less than two-thirds of the vertical page length, should be inserted in the text between paragraphs (or at the top of next page) as soon as possible after it is mentioned. Tables up to a full page, either vertical or horizontal, should be inserted on the next numbered page, following the page on which they are first cited in the text. Usually tables longer than one page, those containing raw data, or those not cited in the text are placed in the Appendix. Tables may also be removed from the text and placed on consecutive pages as one of the last chapters before the Appendix and so identified in the Table of Contents. Tables should not be enclosed in boxes. Tables must be typed and must be on the same kind of paper as the text. In the text, a table should always be referred to by number, for example: “...is shown in Table 26,” not “...in the next table.”

If using the APA Table format, refer to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. (6th ed), Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association (APA), 2009.

Numbering and Titles

All tables should be numbered with Arabic numerals consecutively throughout the entire thesis. Students are also allowed to use decimal points for numbering tables (i.e., Table 5.12, which refers to the 12th table in Chapter 5). If decimal points and chapter numbers are used, this number must be the same as the actual chapter in which the table appears. If tables are removed from the text and placed on consecutive pages in a separate chapter, all tables must be numbered with consecutive Arabic numerals.

Each table title must be placed at the top of the table beginning with the word “Table” followed by the number, followed by a period and the title of the table. The title of the table must be identical with the title shown in the List of Tables in the preliminary pages. Only the first letters of principal words are capitalized. If the full table title is shorter than the width of the page, then it should be centered. If the title is longer than one line, then the word “Table” should be flush with the left margin of the page and the carry-over lines should be single-spaced and indented to begin under the letter “b” in “Table.” No title may extend beyond either the left or right margin of the table or beyond the margins for written text (1.5 inches at the bound edge and 1 inch for the other three sides).

A double space should be below the last line of the title followed by a double line border above the heading. A single line separates the headings from the body of the table, and a single line measuring the full width of the table separates the bottom of the table from the legend or footnotes below. If the table is small and on the same page with text, then it must be separated from the text by two double spaces (both above and below it).

Headings and Columns

All headings must be typed either horizontally or vertically as will best suit the headings, but the arrangement should be consistent within a table and from table to table or comparable data. If a wide table uses the page turned 90 degrees, then the headings must be right side up as viewed by the reader from the long loose side edge. However, the page number on a page that has been turned for a long table remains right side up in the upper right corner, in the normal reading position just like numbers on all other text pages.

Only the first word in a heading is capitalized. The units of the identical items in a column (such as feet, cm, gm) must be included in the heading. The data must be understandable from the table alone, although they are interpreted in the text. Uncommon abbreviations in headings should be avoided if possible, but if used, they must be typed to be read in full from the right hand side of the table, or as footnote.  The items should be spaced for easy reading. However, single-spacing is desirable for long columns of data. Ditto marks are never used to separate identical items of the same rank. Items should be centered in the area below the headings and must be aligned with right-most digit in each column. However, if the numbers contain decimal points or dashes, then the decimal points or the dashes must be aligned regardless of the digits or letters on either side of the period or dashes.

Decimal numbers less than 1.0 should be preceded by a zero (e.g., 0.72 not .72). Decimal numbers should not include more digits than the methods of measurement allow. Only the last digit can be subject to error. Note the difference between 2, 2.0 and 2.000000 depending on the accuracy of the measurement.

Including large tables that exceed the 6 x 9 inch area of the permissible text are discouraged. If it is necessary to include large tables in a thesis, one may type the large table on oversized paper and have it photo-reduced to 6 x 9 inches and mounted on standard thesis paper similar to a photograph. Another method is to use standard typing and continue a large table on successive normal pages. Such pages should begin with the title “Table” followed by the table number, a period, table title, and (Page x of y) in parentheses, centered over the table. All top and side headings must be repeated on each continued page in the same spacing as on the initial page. A page of a continued table should not have a line at the bottom until the last page of the table is finished.

Alternately the original table, typed on horizontally oversized paper equivalent to the quality of standard thesis paper, may be bound directly in the thesis providing the following items are adhered to. The standard margins must be retained even on the oversized unfolded page: 1.5-inch left margin, 1 inch on the other three sides. The page number remains in the upper right corner of the folded-open page. It is important to note that the oversized page will have to be scanned, coverted to PDF, and added to the final PDF copy of the thesis, using a PDF editor.

Long vertical tables are not to be placed on long folded pages. They must be treated as continued tables on consecutive pages. If continued on consecutive pages, the title and headings are repeated on each page. In addition, the page and total page number in parentheses is added to the title, for example, “(Page 1 of 2), (Page 2 of 2).”

Footnotes to Tables

Footnotes to tables should be avoided if possible, but if used, they must be indicated by symbols (e.g., *, #, +) rather than numbers to avoid confusion with the tabular data numbers. The symbol should be placed after the first item to which it refers as the table is read from left to right and from top to bottom. Footnotes are placed two spaces below the solid line at the bottom of a table, with the symbol indented 0.5 inches from the left edge of the table and followed immediately in the next space with the first capital letter of the footnote. Footnotes longer than the width of the table should be single-spaced and carry over to the left edge of the table like a paragraph. Subsequent footnotes for a given table are double-spaced below the first footnote in a similar manner. (Refer to the earlier section on footnotes in the text.)

Footnotes should be short notes. Extensive descriptions of the experimental methods or equipment used to obtain tabular data should be in the text, not in footnotes. In multiple tables of similar data, the symbols should be the same for the same footnotes in each respective table.

Computer Printout and Other Machine Data

The quality of printout and paper used by many computers and printers may be acceptable in a thesis. If, however, pages are oversized, have improper margins, or poor quality ink intensity, it can be assumed that they will be viewed as unacceptable. The original, which is converted to PDF, must be aesthetically clean and reflect a high quality representation of academic work that is ready for publication, as the bound copies are produced from the final uploaded PDF copy.  The Thesis Examiner (in consultation with the Dean of the Graduate College) will be the sole judge to the acceptability of the product of such processes. Please consult with the Thesis Examiner in advance.